The Effects of Partner Presence and Sexual Stimulation on the Appraisal of Vaginal Pressure and Sexual Arousal


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Figure 1

Overview of the experimental condition. After each condition, women report on their subjective sexual arousal, perceived genital arousal, and painful and pleasant vaginal pressure. Men report on their subjective arousal.

Figure 2

Interaction between partner presence and pressure on ratings of pleasant pressure in women at high levels of female relationship satisfaction when watching a sex film.

Figure 3

Interaction between partner presence and pressure on genital arousal responses of women when watching a sex film.

Figure 4

Interaction between partner presence and pressure on genital arousal responses of women who are highly satisfied with their relationship.

Figure 5

Interaction between partner presence and film type on subjective sexual arousal of men and women.

Figure 6

Interaction between sex and pressure induction in women on the subjective sexual arousal responses of men and women.

Figure 7

Interaction between film type and pressure on subjective sexual arousal of men and women.

Figure 8

Interaction between partner presence and pressure on subjective sexual arousal in men and women when the female partner is highly dissatisfied with the relationship.

Figure 9

Interaction between partner presence and pressure on subjective sexual arousal in men and women when the male partner is highly dissatisfied with the relationship.



Sex research lacks experimental studies in which both partners participate in a laboratory procedure. This is relevant in the context of genital pain because painful vaginal sensations often occur in the presence of the partner.


To examine the effects of partner presence, sexual stimulation, and vaginal pressure on the appraisal of vaginal sensations and sexual arousal, ultimately aiming to increase the ecologic validity of laboratory designs.


A community sample of 42 women and their male partners watched sexual and neutral films while separated or together. We induced gradually increasing vaginal pressure in the women using an intravaginal inflatable rubber balloon.


Women reported on pleasant and painful vaginal pressure and perceived genital arousal. Men and women reported on subjective sexual arousal. We also examined whether these appraisals were moderated by relationship satisfaction.


The appraisal of vaginal pressure varied as a function of relationship satisfaction. Less satisfied women reported more painful pressure than women who were highly satisfied and highly satisfied women appraised the pressure as more pleasant in the context of a sex film and in the presence (vs absence) of their partner. In men and women, although partner presence had a negative effect on subjective sexual arousal, the presence of the partner did increase women’s perception of genital arousal when vaginal pressure was induced during a sex film, particularly when women felt highly satisfied with their relationship. Also, the effects on subjective sexual arousal were moderated by relationship satisfaction. For couples in which the woman was less satisfied, the induction of vaginal pressure resulted in higher subjective sexual arousal when the partner was absent compared with when he was present, whereas when the man felt less satisfied, partner presence had a positive effect on sexual arousal.

Clinical Implications

Interventions need to focus on the importance of sexual arousal during vaginal pressure stimulation and the way this is shaped by partner and relationship variables. Our results indicate that enhancing the relationship climate is an important target of intervention.

Strengths and Limitations

We did not include physical indices of genital arousal and did not use a clinical sample of women with genital pain.


The appraisal of vaginal sensations and sexual arousal are context-dependent responses that vary as a function of partner presence and sexual stimulation. Including both partners in the laboratory setting is important to create more valid models on sexual responding.

Dewitte M, Schepers J, Melles R. The Effects of Partner Presence and Sexual Stimulation on the Appraisal of Vaginal Pressure and Sexual Arousal. J Sex Med 2018;15:539–549.

Findings From the Third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles

This study was a secondary analysis of the 3rd National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a prospective stratified probability sample of British individuals 16 to 74 years old interviewed from 2010 to 2012. We assessed for an association between sexual function and the following comorbidities: heart attack, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, chronic lung disease, depression, other mental health conditions, other neurologic conditions, obesity, menopause, incontinence, smoking status, and age.

Patterns in Vulvodynia Treatments and 6-Month Outcomes for Women Enrolled in the National Vulvodynia Registry

Of 344 women enrolled, 282 received treatment; 78 different treatments were identified and categorized by type (eg, topical, oral, physical therapy) and number. The most commonly used treatments were topical (85%, n = 241), physical therapy (52%, n = 147), and oral medications (45%, n = 128). Notably, 73% of participants received ≥2 treatments. There was no association between type or number of treatments and patient characteristics. At 6 months, women reported improvements in general pain (P = .001), pain during intercourse (P = .001), catastrophizing (P = .000), and anxiety (P = .000). The Short Form-12 quality-of-life questionnaire showed improvements in physical limitations (P = .024), emotional limitations (P = .003), well-being (P = .025), and social function (P = .010). However, all domains of the Female Sexual Function Index indicated worsening in sexual function (P = .000) except for pain.

Effects of Sex Hormones and Age on Brain Volume in Post-Menopausal Women

Figure 3

Ages in women were negatively correlated with mean gray matter (GM) volume value in the orbitofrontal gyrus, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), cerebellar cortex, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), hippocampus, pre-central gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), putamen, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Dotted lines show 95% CI. a.u. = arbitrary unit.

The Pregnancy Excuse – Andie Mitchell

As of yesterday, I’m halfway through my pregnancy. It hasn’t been the easiest or most comfortable few months of my life, but I realize how incredibly fortunate I am to have had a normal and uneventful experience thus far. All of the nausea, exhaustion, and the aches and pains of the first trimester feel completely worth it when I think of holding our perfect baby boy at the end of this summer. But as much as I’ve enjoyed carrying our baby, I realize too that I’ve been using my pregnancy as an excuse to give into overeating, caving to dessert multiple times a day, and being pretty sedentary. I find myself justifying every bad habit with, “Why not? I’m pregnant!”—as if it will be easier to get on track once our baby boy arrives.

soft serve

buffalo chicken pizza

Of course, being pregnant isn’t a nine month vacation from discipline and taking care of ourselves. The rational part of me knows that this is the time to eat healthfully and now is the time to work on building productive, sustainable habits that will carry me through baby’s birth. It’s also time to practice self-compassion, I know, without letting the idea of being kind to myself twist into meaning: letting go of my deeper desire to eat well and move my body. I notice that I’m getting a little impatient, telling Daniel, “I wish the baby was here,” once a day. But as long as he is still taking his time growing strong, I’m going to try to use to the next few months to strengthen my discipline and practice healthier and more productive routines.

Has anyone else struggled with this? The fatigue can make it so tough to flex that willpower muscle and to muster the energy to get things done. Do you mothers have any tips or experience that you think could help a first time pregnant lady?

7 Chocolate Treats for Under 200 Calories 12WBT

A little chocolate never hurt anyone! In fact, the occasional treat is a must when you’re striving for balance. Here are seven delicious treats that won’t pack a calorie punch.

Also read: 5 Desserts Under 200 Calories

1. Chocolate-coated strawberries

Serves 2

To get this under 200 calories per serve, take a punnet of fresh strawberries (around 250g) and dip into 50g of melted dark chocolate (just enough to coat each strawberry). Refrigerate until chocolate is firm. Divide between two plates.

2. Yoghurt with chocolate flakes

Serves 1

Take half a cup of low-fat Greek yoghurt and top with two chopped strawberries and 15g of grated dark chocolate (roughly two small squares, or one big Lindt square). If you can, use a fine grater as this will create a dusting that feels plentiful, but keeps you under 200 calories per serve!

3. Chocolate bananas

Serves 1

Cut half a banana into 3 to 4 thick slices, and skewer each slice with a toothpick.

Dip the lower half into 25g melted dark chocolate (minimum 80% cocoa solids). Freeze until the chocolate has hardened.

4. Fruit kebabs

Serves 1

Alternate sliced banana, halved strawberries, melon and watermelon cubes on a large skewer. Place on a large tray, and drizzle with 25g melted dark chocolate. Pop in the fridge until hard.

5. Mini peanut butter cups

Serves 4

Simply take 12 mini paper cases pop a teaspoon of natural, smooth peanut butter into each, then top with a teaspoon of melted dark chocolate. Make sure the peanut butter is smoothed down before you drizzle the chocolate on top.

Place in the freezer until firm. For 200 calories, limit yourself to three. They’re small but very satisfying!

6. Chocolate strawberry ballerinas

Serves 1

Chop three large strawberries in half. Sandwich the halves back together with 1 teaspoon of low-fat ricotta and half a teaspoon of hazelnut spread, such as Nutella.

7. Free 12WBT Recipe: Chocolate Puddings


Serves 2


  • 1g olive oil spray
  • 2 teaspoons cocoa powder (6g)
  • 20g fresh dates, chopped
  • 3 teaspoons margarine (15g)
  • 15g dark chocolate, chopped
  • 1 cage free eggs (59g), lightly beaten
  • 1 teaspoons plain flour (3g)


  1. Preheat oven to 180°C. Spray two 1/3 cup capacity shallow ramekins with oil. Use half the cocoa powder to dust insides of the ramekins. Shake out any excess.
  2. Combine dates and 2 tablespoons boiling water in a small heatproof bowl. Add margarine and chocolate. Microwave on high for 40 seconds. Stir until chocolate and margarine have melted. Cool slightly.
  3. Stir in egg, mixing well. Stir in combined sifted flour and remaining cocoa. Stir until smooth. Spoon mixture into prepared ramekins, and place into a small baking dish. Pour enough boiling water into the baking dish to come halfway up the sides.
  4. Bake for 10-15 minutes. The mixture should be just cooked on top but still feel a little squidgy in the centre. Remove from the dish and stand for 2 minutes. Serve dusted with a tiny amount of cocoa if you like.

5 Weekday Dinner Recipes with 5 Ingredients or Less 12WBT

If we’re being completely honest, who is thrilled about cooking a big, complicated dinner on a weeknight? Between work, social and family commitments, there’s very little mental and physical time for cooking.

While for some cooking is a relaxation and joy, for a lot of people it can be chore. The trick is to make it as pain-free as possible while still avoiding unhealthy takeaway traps (here’s looking at you, pizza!).

Here are five delicious dinner ideas that use five ingredients or less, so you’re not spending too long in the kitchen.

5-Ingredient Roast Dinner

Cut 1-2 chicken breasts into large pieces and pop in an oven tray with large chunks of sweet potato and pumpkin. Add 1-2 tsp olive oil to coat then pop into a pre-heated 180° oven for 30 minutes.

Pull tray out and add one bunch of broccoli, chopped into florets. Add a little extra olive oil and season with salt and pepper, baking for another 10 minutes. Done like a dinner!

Also read: 9 ‘Healthy’ Fridge Items You Should Ditch Immediately

Easy Egg Salad

Pop a few eggs into boiling water and cook for 6-7 minutes. Drain water and rinse with cold water to cool eggs. Peel shell from eggs, rinse and drain a can of corn. Throw the corn and boiled eggs into a bowl with mixed greens and avocado.

Drizzle with 1-2 tsp olive oil and season with salt and pepper.

Mexican Bowl

Spray a small saucepan with olive oil over medium heat. Dice ½ red capsicum and add to pan, stirring often. Once capsicum starts to soften, add Mexican seasoning, stirring for 1 minute.

Rinse and drain red kidney beans and add to pan with canned diced tomatoes. Turn down heat and cook uncovered for 5-10 minutes, stirring regularly. Serve with a good chunk of avocado.

Fully Loaded Frittata

Chop 1-2 small potatoes into 2cm chucks and pop into a saucepan of boiling water. Cook until you can easily poke a fork into them. Drain water and leave to cool.

Wisk a couple of eggs in a bowl. Spray a medium frypan over medium heat with olive oil. Slice up a zucchini and add to pan, along with frozen peas, stirring regularly.

When almost cooked, add in potato, spreading vegetables evenly in the pan. Add eggs and turn down the heat slightly.

Add a sprinkle of your fave cheese, leaving on the heat until egg is cooked through. Serve it up and enjoy!

Fast Fried Rice

Spray a medium frypan over medium heat with olive oil. Add tofu, leftover cooked rice and mixed frozen veggies (corn, peas and carrots will work well), stirring often.

Once tofu starts to brown, add a splash of soy sauce or kecap manis, stirring for a further 1-2 minutes. Serve it up and top with chopped fresh red chilli for a bit of a kick!

Sign-up to 12WBT today and unlock over 1,000 recipes, including 15-minute meals! Click here for more

I Lost 20kg on 12WBT and Got My Life Back 12WBT

I first met Kaye while filming a segment for A Current Affair, where my 12WBT was pitted against two other programs. Kaye, a busy mum with a lot going on in her life, put her hand up to road test my 12WBT.

The rest, as they say, is history. Kaye lost a phenomenal 20kg, and in the process got her life back! I sat down with Kaye and asked her about her journey: the good, the bad, and the unexpected.

When did you realise something had to change?

I started to have some health issues like heartburn, reflux and lots of excess weight around my middle. Nothing fit me and I was desperately unhappy with the “rut” my life was in. My body was an outward picture of how unhappy I was inside.

List some of your biggest achievements with 12WBT

  • I have totally transformed my health and fitness
  • I have lost 20kgs and am now at a healthy BMI
  • I run up stairs and enjoy it!
  • My skin is clear and my eyes are bright
  • I have never felt this strong
  • I sleep better and deal with stress a lot better
  • At 52, I am living proof you can lose weight and get fit despite perimenopause


How have your daily habits changed?

My old routine was totally different to what it is now. I would usually never eat breakfast, or if I did it would only be a cup of tea with milk, or an egg.

I now wake up in the morning and enjoy one of my go-to favourite breakfasts with green tea: banana on toast with ricotta and cinnamon or the apple cinnamon couscous.

My morning routine has had an overhaul, I wake earlier and smash out my workout (JDFI!). Choosing what to wear is easy and quick because everything fits me now! I feel stronger, energised and happier in myself.

What was your biggest hurdle, and how did you conquer it?

One of my biggest hurdles was learning not to eat the kids leftovers from their meals. I now get the kids to scrape and rinse their own plate once they’ve finished eating.

What little quirks helped you through along the way?

  • Peppermint tea after dinner each night
  • I have T2 liquorice legs when I feel like a little sweet treat
  • 70% Lindt dark chocolate is also good to keep in the fridge for those sweet craving emergencies!

How has your household changed since starting 12WBT?

  • We now enjoy our meals at the table together
  • The kids respect my 1 hour each day to exercise – they say “Mum you go and do your 12WBT” and sometimes they will join me
  • Junk food is absolutely gone from the cupboard
  • The kids are actively involved in meal prep and designing our Meal Plan for the week
  • Living by the 12WBT Meal Plans has cut my food bill in half and the extra money I put away each fortnight I am going to use to buy a treadmill

What are the three biggest lessons you’ve learnt by doing 12WBT?

  1. I can do whatever I put my mind to
  2. I deserve to live a fantastic life in a healthy way
  3. I am in total control of the choices I make, no one else

What would you say to your past self?

People always ask me now if it was easy. My answer to them is this: if you truly want it, it is. Be prepared to embrace the changes and do it for YOU. Stop overthinking and just start.

Living positively and healthily is so visible to others and soon you’ll have people asking, “You look great! What are you doing?”

My next 12WBT round starts soon! To start your own journey, click here.

Vegetarian Diet Plan | Slimming Pills Reviewed

The vegetarian diet is followed by many as part of their culture or choice. Some people look into the vegetarian diet plan to lead a healthier lifestyle and to promote weight loss. The vegetarian diet is a healthy lifestyle which is low in cholesterol, total and saturated fat. It may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart diseases.

Vegetarian diet by definition does not have any meat, poultry or fish. Some vegetarians prefer to eat eggs and milk products. True vegans only eat plan food and do not eat anything derived from animals including milk, eggs and honey. If you are considering vegetarianism, learn more about nutritious vegetarian foods.


Meat proteins are the superior quality proteins when compared to vegetarian sources. However, it is possible to get all the essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant based foods. Legumes and grains are good sources. You can choose soy over meat as it is a complete protein. Soy is the primary ingredient for most meatless nuggets, sausages and burgers. Combine different plant based sources to meet your protein needs. For example, have beans and rice.

One way to easily transition into the vegetarian lifestyle is to create a meatless version of your favorite recipe.

Calcium and Vitamin D

If you have milk, cheese or yogurt in your diet, you are safe with regards to calcium and vitamin D. But if you choose to become a vegan, you will have supplement your diet with alternate sources of calcium. Fortified soy milk, orange juice, seeds, nuts and green vegetables are good sources of calcium. The body can make vitamin D that is requires by exposure to sunlight. If that is not possible or you do not want to do it, consider vitamin supplementation.


Zinc is found in many vegetarian foods, but it is not as readily absorbed as the meat based zinc. Good sources of zinc are milk, cheese, whole grain breads, nuts, soy foods and legumes. Eating plenty of zinc rich foods can help with more absorption of zinc into the body.


Although, red meat tops the list of good sources of iron, it is plentiful in leafy green vegetables, cooked dry beans and fortified cereals and grains. Eating iron rich foods regularly and in combination with vitamin C, which improves the absorption of iron.

Omega-3 fatty acids

The best of source of Omega-3 fatty acids is fatty fish and eggs. If you do not consume either of those, you can get your Omega-3 fix from flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, walnuts and soybean oil.

Vitamin B 12

Vitamin B12 is found only in meat products or fortified foods. Therefore, if you are a vegan you must eat vitamin B12 fortified foods or take Vitamin B12 supplements. Lack of Vitamin B12 can cause muscle weakness and tiredness.

Being a vegetarian has scores of health benefits and it is even safe for kids. You don’t even have to be a full time vegetarian to start out. You can go two to three days without meat to enhance your health. A vegetarian diet is high in antioxidants and fiber. It can help you with you weight loss goals as long as you pay attention to the portion sizes.

Green Coffee Extract Review

Green coffee extract is taken from green coffee beans that haven’t been roasted. The amount of caffeine is lower than it would be in normal coffee, while the flavor is almost nonexistent. What could possibly be the use of green coffee extract, then?

Along with the reduced caffeine and flavor, green coffee extract has a secret weapon! It’s called chlorogenic acid and it might be the greatest new way to fight obesity and high blood pressure.

How Green Coffee Extract Works

Chlorogenic acid is a naturally occuring antioxidant that can be found in many plants and plant-based foods, such as bamboo, peaches, prunes and coffee. While it’s present in even a standard cup of joe, it’s easier to get a larger–and more effective–dose from green coffee extract. It’s theorized that the chlorogenic acid prevents the body from absorbing glucose and lowers the glycemic peak. Scientists know that the presence of chlorogenic acid slows the body’s release of glucose into the bloodstream after eating, which could be why it might lower blood sugar spikes and enhance the burning of fat.

Another important factor in green coffee bean extract is that it affects the hormone adiponectin, which controls many different fat burning processes in the body. The way that green coffee extract interacts with adiponectin is one reason why studies have found that coffee has far greater fat burning power than green tea, despite the many health benefits associated with the latter. Habitual coffee drinkers have higher adiponectin levels, as well as a greater capacity for fat burning.


One double-blind study headed by leading green coffee extract expert Dr. Joe Vinson found that subjects on 1050mg doses of green coffee extract over a 22 week period had an average weight loss of 17 pounds, or 10.5% of their body weight. This translated to a decrease in their body fat by 16%. Excitingly, it also reduced their blood pressure. The most astounding part of all was that none of the participants changed their diet significantly over the course of the study. This was purely the effect of the green coffee extract.


Additionally, the antioxidant rich green coffee extract can help your body flush out the by-products of fat metabolism, free radicals.

What’s in Green Coffee Extract?

Green Coffee Extract 2000mg is a unique product on the market. Why? Because unlike other supplements, it contains 100% pure green coffee extract that has been harvested from unroasted green coffee beans.

The 100% natural, pure extract of unroasted green coffee beans needs no fillers or additives. In its pure form, it has been coined the newest miracle in the weight loss supplement industry. As one of the most potent sources of chlorogenic acid, it has been found to enhance metabolism, boost fat reduction and elimination, balance blood sugar-levels, and act as a superior antioxidant against oxygen free radical damage.

Using Green Coffee Extract

Manufacturer’s guidelines should be followed at all times. Consume only 1 to 3 capsules every day for optimum results. Green coffee extract is potent enough to do it’s work at these levels.

The Verdict

If you are in the market for a 100% pure, natural green coffee extract, there is only one product for you. The original green coffee extract with 2000mg of pure green coffee is just what you need.

Where to buy 100% pure green coffee extract?

The best place to get Green Coffee Extract is direct at the Evolution Slimming online store here.

Click here for the latest multi-buy discounts.

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